The World Trade Organization (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement is a significant international agreement that ensures the safety of global trade in agricultural and food products. This agreement governs the measures countries take to protect human, animal, and plant health from diseases, pests, and other threats that may arise from the import and export of agricultural products.

The SPS Agreement is one of the WTO`s founding agreements, and it is designed to facilitate the liberalization of international trade while ensuring that public health and safety are not compromised. In other words, the purpose of the SPS Agreement is to reduce trade barriers while protecting public health and the environment.

The SPS Agreement establishes a set of rules that all WTO members must follow when implementing sanitary and phytosanitary measures. These measures include the inspection and certification of plants and animals, the control of pests and diseases, and the regulation of food additives, contaminants, and other hazards.

The SPS Agreement also provides for the use of scientific and risk assessment methods to determine the appropriate level of protection for human, animal, and plant health. This means that SPS measures should be based on sound scientific evidence and must be proportionate to the level of risk presented by a particular product or situation.

The SPS Agreement has been a significant factor in facilitating the growth of global trade in agricultural and food products. By establishing common rules and standards, it has helped to prevent the spread of diseases and pests, and to ensure that consumers around the world have access to safe and high-quality food products.

However, the SPS Agreement has also been the subject of some controversy. Some critics argue that it may be used as a tool for protectionism, allowing countries to impose unjustified trade barriers under the guise of protecting public health. Others point out that the scientific evidence used to justify SPS measures is not always objective or reliable.

Despite these challenges, the WTO SPS Agreement remains an important framework for maintaining the safety and integrity of global trade in agricultural and food products. It helps to ensure that the benefits of free trade are not outweighed by risks to public health and the environment, and that consumers around the world can have confidence in the quality and safety of the food products they purchase.